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Posted By: Wahaj khan
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History of Mohenjo-daro
Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Civilization.
Mohenjo-daro, meaning "Mound of the Dead" in Sindhi, is one of the most remarkable archaeological sites in the world. Located in present-day Sindh, Pakistan, it was once part of the great Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization. Mohenjo-daro flourished approximately between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE, making it one of the earliest urban settlements in South Asia. The discovery of this ancient city has provided invaluable insights into the history and culture of a civilization that remains enigmatic to this day.
Uncovering the Lost City:
The site of Mohenjo-daro was accidentally discovered in 1922 by R.D. Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India. Excavations began under the direction of Sir John Marshall in 1924 and continued intermittently until 1965. The city's well-preserved ruins were an astonishing find, providing a glimpse into the life of a civilization that thrived over 4,000 years ago.
Urban Planning and Architecture:
Mohenjo-daro's urban planning and architecture were highly advanced for its time. The city was built on a grid system, with well-laid-out streets and a complex drainage system. The buildings were constructed with standardized fired brick, and many structures featured intricate carvings and decorative elements. The Great Bath, a large rectangular tank lined with bricks and possibly used for religious or ritual purposes, is one of the most iconic structures in Mohenjo-daro.
Trade and Economy:
The Indus Valley Civilization was known for its thriving trade networks. Mohenjo-daro, strategically located along the banks of the Indus River, played a crucial role in facilitating trade within the region. Archaeological evidence suggests that the city had extensive trade connections with other contemporary civilizations, including Mesopotamia. The discovery of seals and artifacts made from materials like carnelian, lapis lazuli, and terracotta indicates the existence of long-distance trade routes.
Social Organization and Culture:
The layout of Mohenjo-daro provides insights into the social organization of the Harappan civilization. The city was divided into two main sections, with an acropolis (higher town) and a lower town. The presence of public buildings, granaries, and a large central marketplace indicates a centralized authority that governed the city. The Harappan script, although yet to be deciphered, is found on various seals and pottery, suggesting a form of written communication.
Agriculture and Irrigation:
The fertility of the Indus River valley played a crucial role in supporting agricultural activities in Mohenjo-daro. The city's inhabitants practiced advanced agricultural techniques, utilizing irrigation systems to cultivate crops. The presence of well-planned and well-maintained wells, reservoirs, and canals indicates the expertise of the Harappans in managing water resources effectively.
Decline and Disappearance:
Despite its remarkable achievements, the Indus Valley Civilization faced challenges that eventually led to its decline. Scholars believe that environmental factors such as the shifting course of the Indus River, floods, and changes in the monsoon patterns could have contributed to the decline of Mohenjo-daro and other cities in the region. Evidence of fire and widespread destruction in some parts of the city also suggests the possibility of invasion or internal conflicts.
Preservation and UNESCO World Heritage Site:
After the excavation, measures were taken to preserve and protect the ruins of Mohenjo-daro. The site was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980, recognizing its outstanding universal value. However, over the years, the site has faced numerous challenges, including urban encroachment and neglect.
|Job Price:800||Duration : 24 hours|
|Location: Rs.Pakistan||Languages Known : english|
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Jun 12, 2021